Princeton researchers have simplified the effect and cost of organic solar cells. These cells are used to absorb the sun’s rays and form Direct Current into the power supply. With this new research, large manufacturers can reduce the overall cost of many Solar Panels used in today’s Solar installations
The researchers, were able to increase the efficiency of the solar cells 175 percent by using a nanostructured “sandwich” of metal and plastic that collects and traps light.
the research team used nanotechnology to overcome two primary challenges that cause solar cells to lose energy: light reflecting from the cell, and the inability to fully capture light that enters the cell.
With their new metallic sandwich, the researchers were able to address both problems. The sandwich — called a subwavelength plasmonic cavity — has an extraordinary ability to dampen reflection and trap light. The new technique allowed Chou’s team to create a solar cell that only reflects about 4 percent of light and absorbs as much as 96 percent.
The structure achieves even more efficiency for light that strikes the solar cell at large angles, which occurs on cloudy days or when the cell is not directly facing the sun. By capturing these angled rays, the new structure boosts efficiency by an additional 81 percent, leading to the 175 percent total increase.
The physics behind the innovation is formidably complex. But the device structure, in concept, is fairly simple.
The top layer, known as the window layer, of the new solar cell uses an incredibly fine metal mesh: the metal is 30 nanometers thick, and each hole is 175 nanometers in diameter and 25 nanometers apart.This mesh replaces the conventional window layer typically made of a material called indium-tin-oxide (ITO).
The mesh window layer is placed very close to the bottom layer of the sandwich, the same metal film used in conventional solar cells. In between the two metal sheets is a thin strip of semiconducting material used in solar panels. It can be any type — silicon, plastic or gallium arsenide — although Chou’s team used an 85-nanometer-thick plastic.
Chou’s team discovered that using these subwavelength structures allowed them to create a trap in which light enters, with almost no reflection, and does not leave.
In this series of experiments, Chou and Ding worked with solar cells made from plastic, called organic solar cells. Plastic is cheap and malleable and the technology has great promise, but it has been limited in commercial use because of organic solar cells’ low efficiency.
Chou said the team plans further experiments and expects to increase the efficiency of the PlaCSH system as they refine the technology.